Glossary - Letter C

  • Certification of competences

    The process of formally validating knowledge, know-how and/or competences acquired by an individual following a standardised assessment procedure. Certificate results in the issuing of certificates or diplomas by an accredited awarding body.
  • Certification/diploma

    an official document, which formally records the achievements of an individual following an assessment procedure (related term : certification)
  • Circular migration

    Circular migration can involve third-country nationals settled in the EU, who repeatedly engage in an activity(business, professional, voluntary or other) in their country of origin while retaining their main residence in one of the Member States. Circular migration can also involve persons residing in a non-EU country temporarily moving to the EU for work, study or training, and then returning to the country of origin. Circularity can be enhanced by giving migrants the possibility to retain some form of facilitated or privileged mobility, for example in the form of simplified admission/re-entry procedures.

    Source : European Migration Network (EMN)

  • Citizenship

    the status of being a citizen, usually determined by law. In the republican tradition, qualifications for citizenship are associated with particular rights and duties of citizens, and a commitment to equality between citizens is compatible with considerable exclusivity in the qualifying conditions. (…/…) In general qualifications for citizenship reflect a conception of the purposes of the political community and a view about which persons are able to contribute to, or enjoy the benefits of, the common good or the freedom of the city.” [1]

    Both the European Union in the 1992 Treaty of Maastricht and the Council of Europe in the “Education for Democratic Citizenship Project” launched in 1997 adopt the term of citizenship to mark a new phase for the political agenda of European integration [2]. At first glance, the European Union and the Council of Europe draw on different concepts of citizenship.

    • in the European Union context, ‘European Citizenship’ takes as a starting point citizenship as a legal institution which needs gradual substantiation ;

    in  the Council of Europe context ,  the concept of citizenship – on the basis of the principle of participatory democracy –  is considered as an educational matter which refers to the development of individual capacities, competences and attitudes by the people in Europe ; it is though based on a much broader understanding of the field of political and social inclusion which extends beyond the legal and the legislative.

    [1] Lain McLean , The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996

    [2] in neither of the founding documents of the Council of Europe or the European Economic Community (before it became the European Union), is the term ‘citizenship’ explicitly mentioned .

  • codevelopment

    any action to support development whatever its kind and whatever the domain of activity, to which are involved migrants living in France, what ever its framework. The support for return concerns several hundred of people each year concerne plusieurs centaines de personnes par an ce qui est très marginal ; it is most marginal.

    Source : Cour des comptes, Paris, 2005 :

  • Competence

    proven and demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, know-how and associated knowledge in a usual and/or changing work situation

  • Competence

    Proven and demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, know-how and associated knowledge in a usual and/or changing work situation
  • cooperation


    1. The act or practice of cooperating
    2. The association of persons or businesses for common, usually economic, benefit.

    source : The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

    cooperation, co-operation 

    1. joint operation or action
    2. assistance or willingness to assist
    3. (Economics) Economics the combination of consumers, workers, farmers, etc., in activities usually embracing production, distribution, or trade
    4. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Environmental Science) Ecology beneficial but inessential interaction between two species in a community

    source : Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged
    © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003

    co•op•er•a•tion or co-op•er•a•tion 

    1. the action of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit.
    2. the combination of persons for purposes of production, purchase, or distribution for their joint benefit.
    3. Ecol. mutually beneficial interaction among organisms living in a limited area.
  • Cooperation platform

    Cooperation platforms aim to bring together representatives of the country or countries concerned with EU Member States, the Commission and international organisations. The idea is to bring together all relevant migration and development actors to exchange information and coordinate some activities in order to avoid overlaps and thus manage migration more effectively.

    Source : European Migration Network (EMN)