Glossary - Letter Q

  • qualification

    The term qualification covers different aspects:

    1. formal qualification: the formal outcome (certficate, diploma or title) of an assessment and validation process which is obtained when a competent body determines that an individual has achieved learning outcomes to given standards and/or possesses the necessary competences to do a job in a specific area of work. A qualification confers official recognition of the value of learning outcomes in the labour market and in education and training. A qualification can be a legal entitlement to practice a trade (OECD);

    2. job requirements: the knowledge, aptitudes and skills required to perform the specific tasks attached to a particular work position (ILO);

    3.  personal attributes: the sum of kniwledge, know-how, skills and/or competences acquired by an individual in formal, non-formal and/or informal settings.

  • qualification framework

    instrument for the development and classification of qualifications (e.g at national or sectoral level) according to a set of criteria (e.g using descriptors) applicable to specified levels of learning outcomes.

  • qualification system

    a system which provides rules governing all aspects of education and training activities leading to recognition of learning outcomes at national or sectoral level, including:

    1. definition of qualification policy, training design and implementation, institutional arrangements, funding, quality assurance;

    2. assessment, validation and certification of learning outcomes,

    3. mechanisms that link education and training to the labour market and civil society.